A CIMPA school on Lattices, Heights and Diophantine Approximation Urgench State University, Urgench, Uzbekistan June 24th  July 5th 2024 
 
Khiva, hometown of AlKhwārizmī a few kilometers away from Urgench 
The school aims at introducing the students to a few lines of research in number theory revolving around the concepts of lattices, heights and diophantine approximation. Part of the school is devoted to presenting the recent proof by Maryna Viazovska that the densest sphere packing in dimension 8 is the one given by the E_8 lattice. In 2022 she was awarded the Fields medal. To this end we introduce the students to lattices, sphere packings and modular forms. We will prove the CohnElkies bound and finally we will study Viazovska's construction of the function which optimizes such bound and proves that the E_8 lattice is the densest packing in dimension 8. In the other part of the program we will introduce the machinery of heights, which are standard tools of Diophantine geometry used to measure arithmetic complexity of objects. We will then demonstrate the use of height functions in Diophantine approximation and Diophantine geometry discussing results and conjectures such as the MordellWeil theorem, Faltings' theorem, Siegel's lemma, Cassels' theorem, Lehmer's conjecture, and many others. On the Diophantine approximation side, we will discuss the central themes of equidistribution and approximation of reals by algebraic numbers. We expect the participants to gain familiarity with these central and vibrant areas of mathematics that have been at the forefront of mathematical research for over a hundred years. Our program is specifically designed in a way that assumes a rather modest background, but with a concentrated and focused approach takes the audience to some of the modernday research directions.
