Distribution of primes (9 hours)
Lecturer: Francesco Pappalardi and Cihan Pehlivan
Program:
We shall first cover the basics of the Theory of Distribution of prime numbers.
This will include the proof to the Chebicev Theorem, the Mertens Theorems and the Dirichlet Theorem for primes in arithmetic progressions.
Next we concentrate on the Riemann zeta function discussing its fundamental properties
following the original paper by Riemann (Functional equation, Hadamard product expansion, Vertical distribution of the zeros and zero
free regions).
Time will force us to omit several proofs but we will emphasise the link between the position of the zeros of zeta and the distribution of prime
numbers.
Basic properties of primitive roots. History of the Artin Conjecture. Kummerian Extension.
Explicit Chebotarev for Kummerian Extensions. Consequences of the GRH. The proof of Hooley's Theorem.
Sketch of the proof of the quasi resolution of the Artin Conjecture by Gupta, Murty and HeathBrown.

 Lfunctions and ζfunctions (14 hours)
Lecturers: Paul Voutier, Michel Waldschmidt and Fernando Rodriguez Villegas
Program:
Definition of the Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet Lfunctions. Elementary analytic properties.
Values at even integers, Euler product. Functional equation.
Vertical distribution of the zeros. Hadamard product expansion. The Riemann hypothesis.
Other examples of Lfunctions and ζfunctions. Lfunctions coming from geometry. The Selberg class of Lfunctions.
Zeta functions of varieties over finite fields. Interpretation in terms of the Frobenius automorphism. Heuristics on motives based on
concrete examples (including hypergeometric motives). Global Lfunction associated to a motive: Euler factor at infinity,
at good and bad primes, conductor, functional equation, etc.


Chebotarev Density Theorem (12 hours)
Lecturers: Ekim Ozman and Adriana Salerno
Program:
Review of algebraic number thoery: Number fields and their ring of integers. Extension of number fields:
Decomposition and ramification, the ramification index and the residue class degree of a prime ideal: their definitions and relations.
Galois extensions, spilt and inert primes. The discriminant of an extension. Characterization of ramified prime ideals as those dividing the discriminant.
Explicit theory for quadratic and cubic number fields.
Definition of the inertia group and the decomposition group and the Frobenius symbol. The Chebotarev density theorem.

 Elliptic curve analogues (9 hours)
Lecturers: Peter Stevenhagen and Valerio Talamanca
Program:
Elliptic curves: Addition law on a plane cubic in Weierstrass form. Abstract elliptic curves and their planar model. Rational points on an elliptic curve.
Elliptic curves over finite fields: the Weil bound for the number of points.
Reduction of elliptic curves modulo a prime: first properties and the standard short exact sequence. Definition of good and bad reduction
of an ellptic curve. Definition of the Lfunction of an elliptic curve defined over ther rationals. Primitive points modulo a prime. The LangTrotter conjecture on
the density of primitive points. Reduction modulo a prime

